Chapter 13 – Manifest Destiny 1810-1853
13.1 – Trails West
of rich soil out west.
Fe Trail = across the Great Plains from Independence, MO to Santa Fe,
NM to trade hardware, cloth, and china.
Trail ran from Independence, MO to the Oregon
discussed rich land.
Mormons = Church of Jesus Christ of Latter Day
Saints lived in close communities, worked hard, shared their goods, and
Brigham Young took them to UT by the Great Salt Lake.
built canals and dams to their dry settlements.
Old Spanish Trail connected Santa Fe with Los
CA Trail connected Ft. Hall in the Oregon Territory
13.2 The Texas Revolution
- Tejas was
rich, had forests in the east, grew corn and cotton, and had grassy plains
Austin settled on empresarios (large land plots).
Mexican Independence Changes Texas
- Just after
Stephen Austin arrived in TX, Mexico gained
- Austin asked for his
1821 and 1827, Austin
got 297 families, “The Old Three Hundred.”
wanted non-drinkers and moral, hardworking people.
people wanted land, to escape US law, and wealth.
outnumbered Tejanos 6 to 1 (30,000 total).
Rising Tensions in
resented Mexican laws and did not want to speak Spanish or have
wanted slaves to grow cotton.
felt Americans had a superiority complex.
closed further immigration into TX and troops went to collect taxes.
Texans Revolt against
Texans wanted to break away from Mexico.
- Austin asked for TX to be a self-governing state
supported by Tejanos and Americans.
Lopez de Santa Anna, the Mexican President, learned Austin threatened rebellion.
Texans drove them out of the Alamo in San Antonio.
The Fight for the Alamo
Anna sent 6,000 troops to TX.
Houston was in command of the TX army, and
declared itself a free and independent republic.
volunteers led by Davy Crockett.
23, 1836, the Mexicans began a 12 day siege of the Alamo.
Anna ordered 1,800 men to storm the fortress on Day 13.
- Battle of the Alamo
ended with all but five Texans dead.
Victory at San Jacinto
- Houston’s army
doubled to 800 men of Americans and Tejanos.
Anna caught up with Houston at San Jacinto.
April 21, 1836, the Texans attacked with the slogan, “Remember the Alamo!”
- In 18
minutes, the Texans killed more than half the Mexicans and won
Lone Star Republic
September 1836, Texas
called itself the Lone Star Republic.
- Houston was elected
set up its own army and navy.
Texans wanted to be a slave state.
voted against annexation, and TX was independent for ten years.
13.3 The War with Mexico
Polk wanted TX and OR.
destiny was given by God to further develop liberty and
means events are sure to happen.
Destiny became Polk’s policy, pushing Mexicans and Natives out of the
slogan was “Fifty-four forty or fight!”
W 40’N latitude should be the northern boundary, passed Vancouver.
settled for half of the Oregon
Territory at the 49th
Troubles with Mexico
1845, Congress admitted TX as a slave state, but Mexico
still claimed TX.
wanted to buy TX, CA, and NM for $25 million.
- Mexico crossed the Rio
Grande and killed 16 US soldiers.
- Lincoln and
Northeast were against war.
saw it as a way to increase slavery.
Taylor invaded Mexico.
took NM (also AZ) without a fight.
entered CA, which had 8,000 – 12,000 residents.
C Frémont rebelled in the Bear Flag Revolt and took Northern CA.
- CA = independent republic, and US took
the rest of CA.
The Invasion of Mexico
troops invaded from two directions.
the north, Taylor led 4,800 troops to Buena Vista.
the south, General Winfield Scott landed at Veracruz
and pushed to Chapultepec, then Mexico
City in September 1847.
Mexican said “God is a Yankee.”
February 2, 1848 à Treaty of Guadalupe
was part of the US,
with the Rio Grande
as the border.
Cession = CA, NV, UT, most of AZ, and parts of NM, CO, and WY.
lost half its land.
paid $15 million and $3.25 million in claims against Mexico.
will protect the 80,000 Mexicans there, (now a minority with a strange
language, culture, and legal system).
- Gadsden Purchase = $10 million, for the southern
strip of land included southern AZ and NM.
July 4, 1848, the US
stretched “from sea to shining sea.”
13.4 – The CA Gold Rush
Rush for Gold
Gold Rush = gold found in the CA rivers and streams.
- CA gold could pay for the Mexican War.
dangerous routes to CA:
around South America up the Pacific
Coast with storm and
through the Isthmus of Panama, cross over land
with diseases, and sail to CA; and
the trails of North America with rivers,
animals, and mountains.
Life in the Mining
- Camps = violent and streams were icy.
anger, and prejudice caused cheating.
- Exhaustion, poor food, and disease damaged
- In 1873, Levi Strauss made cotton denim jeans – the
strongest fabric that held tools without ripping.
Miners from Around
were whites from New England.
Miners Tax put a $20 per month tax on foreign miners, making them leave.
1851, 10% of immigrants were Chinese.
miners = hardworking and patient, who had different customs, foods, and
Chinese miners grew, so did American anger towards the Chinese.
is found in veins or cracks in the earth’s rocky crust.
the surface erodes, gold veins crack into nuggets, flakes, and crust.
brings them into streams.
like pans and sluices, separated the gold dust or nuggets from dirt.
The Impact of the
Gold Rush – Ended in 1852
in 250,000 people.
- San Francisco grew to
be a center of banking, manufacturing, shipping, and trade.
grew from 400 in 1845 to 35,000 in 1850.
died from diseases and killings.
had enough people to apply for statehood.
admitted it as a free state
in 1850. (More Free States)
Cause and Effect: US Expansion, 1846-1853
- Westward trails move thousands to new lands
Territory acquired by
- TX Revolution
- US annexes TX
- War with Mexico
- Mexican Cession acquired by US
- US expands from sea to sea
- Transcontinental Railroad needed
- Gadsden Purchase
- Thousands of gold seekers rush to CA
- CA becomes a state